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Database management system tutorialsDatabase management system tutorials  for different topics as per the gate cse syllabus are described in this post. Gate cse syllabus for GATE 2020 contains the following topics of database management system.(a) ER‐model.(b) Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms.( c ) File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees).(d) Transactions and concurrency control.Every year questions of 6 to 8 marks are generally asked in gate exam from these database management system topics.Here you will get various article related to database management concepts , practice sets and examples t... Read more
clicks 0 View   Vote 0 Like   12:34am 26 Sep 2019 #gate study material for cse
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Database Languages Database Languages are require because just like human being database management system also need communication languages for proper communication with database. These database Languages are mainly used to create and maintain database. Along with this database languages are used to read data, store and update information in database. Database languages are also known as dbms languages.Database Languages in DBMSIn database management system there are following types of dbms languages are used.Data Definition Language(DDL)Data Definition Language or DDL used to define the database schema. In database, it is used to create tables, constraints, indexes ,schema etc.  ... Read more
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Dbms three schema architecturePerformance of database management system also depends on the dbms architecture. Generally a three schema architecture in DBMS is used for database design. Database management system software is designed and developed by keep in mind the three different level of schema in dbms. This three schema architecture is basically used to describe the structure of a specific  database system.Three schema architecture helps in separating the user and physical database. All these three schema are also known as three level which are as shown in  diagram and described below.Physical LevelThe lowest level in the 3 tier architecture of dbms is physical level... Read more
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Data independence in dbmsWhat is data independence in dbms?What is difference between physical and logical data independence?Data independence is a property of DBMS which helps you to change the Database schema at one level without disturbing the schema at the next higher level of a database system.A database system contains lots of data. For example, it stores metadata, data about data, to find and retrieve data easily. But it is difficult to modify a set of metadata once it is stored in the database. The problem is that when database expands, changes need to be done over time to satisfy the requirements of the users. It would become a highly complex job if the entire data is dependent.In s... Read more
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Network layer design issuesnetwork layer design issues... Read more
clicks 0 View   Vote 0 Like   1:11am 27 Aug 2019 #gate study material for cse
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Gate cse syllabusBefore discussing about the gate cse syllabus I would like to tell you that every year approximate 150000 engineering graduated candidates from computer science and information technology branch give the exam of gate computer science and engineering.Before preparing the gate exam it is important to know about the gate cse syllabus so that you can take an idea of the topics to be asked in gate cse exam.Here in this post I am providing you the gate cse syllabus for GATE 2020 exam. This syllabus for gate cse is valid for computer science as well as information technology branch.This gate cse syllabus for GATE 2020 exam for computer science and information technology will contai... Read more
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Entity relationship model Entity relationship model tutorialIn this Entity relationship model based er diagram tutorial we will learn about important concepts of entity relationship diagram such as er diagram definition,er diagram symbols and notations,er diagram examples with solutions and different components of er diagram.What is Er Diagram ?What are different er diagram symbols?Give an er diagram examples with solutions.What are different components of er diagram?What is entity relationship model?Representation in DBMS to show relation between real world entities. This representation is  the Entity Relationship Model. This diagram basically shows the conceptual view of a databa... Read more
clicks 6 View   Vote 0 Like   12:30am 9 Aug 2019 #ER diagram Tutorial
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Computer Networks GATE Practice QuestionsComputer networks gate questions with answers Practice SET 1Objective of this computer network tutorial is provides some practice questions for gate exam.Such types of questions are generally asked in gate exam every year.1 Marks  Questions Q1.Which protocol uses UDP as transport protocol?(a)    SMTP(b)   telnet(c)    DNS(d)   HTTPAnswer : a                  Q2.Which of the following is false with regards to TTL(a) TTL is used to avoid infinite looping(b) TTL is used in debugging( c ) TTL counts number of routers ... Read more
clicks 5 View   Vote 0 Like   7:01am 31 Jul 2019 #Computer Networks
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Looping statements in c Programming: An OverviewTable of content What is a loop in c?Advantages of using a loop in c.Types of loopsWhat is the difference between while loop and do while loop?This tutorial covers the concepts of looping statements in c with example. Advantages of using loops have been explained in this tutorial. This tutorial also covers the types of loop such as for loop in c programming example, while loop in c programming example and do- while loop in c programmingWhat is a loop in c?When we write a program to solve any problem then sometime we face a situation when some statements in the code need to be executed more than one time or fixed number of times. In ge... Read more
clicks 7 View   Vote 0 Like   9:58am 13 Jul 2019 #c programming notes for gate
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Conditional statements in c The conditional statements in c are the statements that are used to check any particular condition according to the user's requirement. Conditional statements help us to make a decision in the program in any condition.We specify the condition as a set of the conditional statements having the Boolean expression which may be either true or false. Execution flow of a c program is changed as per the condition specified in conditional statements.Different types of conditional statements in cIn C programming language there are following types of conditional statements in c.1. if statement2.if-else statement3.nested if else statement4.switch statement5.if else if la... Read more
clicks 6 View   Vote 0 Like   7:59am 12 Jul 2019 #c programming notes for gate
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Normalization in Dbms with exampleWhat is database normalization ?What are benefits of normalization in dbms?What are different types of normal forms in dbms?So Let's start with normalization introduction.What is Database Normalization?Normalization makes database design simpler. It is also known as database normalization or data normalization. Database Normalizationis an important part of database design. It helps in the speed, accuracy of the database. Database Normalization is a technique used to design a relational database.Normalization occurs in two processes, which removes the repeating groups from the data in the form of a table, and then removes duplicate entries of the same from th... Read more
clicks 7 View   Vote 0 Like   10:33pm 8 Jul 2019 #dbmas study material
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Domain name system [dns]What is domain name system (dns) ?How does domain name server work?Domain name system definitionA domain name system (dns)  is an internet service that translate domain name to IP Address. Host name are not case sensitive and contains alphabetic numeric , letter or hyphen.what is domain name system and how it works ?A domain name system is in fact it own network.  If one dns server does not know how to translate domain name to IP Address then  it ask for another and so on until the correct ip address is returned.When we use the web or send an email message to do it we use domain name to do it. For example the url "http://ww.google.com"  contai... Read more
clicks 7 View   Vote 0 Like   2:37am 25 Jun 2019 #Computer Networks
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Virtualization in Cloud Computing This year NTA or UGC NET syllabus of computer science and application also included cloud computing and virtualization topic for the test. Virtualization is an important concept in cloud computing. Here in this virtualization tutorial I have explained d the basic concepts of virtualization such as virtualization definition, types of virtualization in cloud computing , virtualization benefits and difference between cloud computing and virtualization. To study this topic I referred the Cloud Computing and Virtualization articleWhat is Virtualization?Virtualization means creating the virtual version of a useful resource such as server, storage de... Read more
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Computer Networks Questions for UGC NET CS and GATE  ExamIn this post  different questions from computer networks subject for GATE and UGC NET exam are explained. These type of questions are generally asked in Gate and UGC NET exam. Data for Questions 1 and 2 is given here -If three IP networks A, B and C. Host HA in network A send messages. Message has 180 bytes of application data to a host HC in network C. The TCP layer add a 20 byte header to this message. After that this passes through an intermediate network B. The maximum packet size, including 20 byte IP header, in each network is A :1000 bytes B :100 bytes C :1000 bytesThe network A and B are connected ... Read more
clicks 5 View   Vote 0 Like   8:16am 21 May 2019 #Computer networks gate questions with answer
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Java database connectivity stepsHow to create jdbc connection in java?What is difference between statement and preparedstatement in java ?In the previous jdbc tutorial named as types of jdbc drivers in java  we learned about what is jdbc in java and jdbc drivers in java . Now in this jdbc tutorial we will learn how to create jdbc connection in java or java database connectivity  with mysql or jdbc connection in java with oracle.There are 6 steps used  to connect a java application with the database through JDBC. These steps are as follows:      Create an ODBC Data Source Name.      Register the Driver class or load the&nbs... Read more
clicks 3 View   Vote 0 Like   10:24am 7 Apr 2019 #JDBC
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Steps for java database connectivityIn the previous tutorial named as types of jdbc drivers in java  we learned about different jdbc drivers. Now in this tutorial we will learn how to create jdbc conection in java or jdbc connection with mysql or jdbc connection in java with oracle.Following steps are used to create jdbc connection in java application with database.Step 0 – Create an ODBC DSN (Data Source Name)Step 1 – load the driverClass.forName ("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); //for JDBC-ODBC BridgeNote: - if not using odbc then you will load vendor specific driver class. Check driverdocumentation.Parameter passed in forName() method to connect with different database are a... Read more
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JDBC and JDBC DriversJava Data Base Connectivity (JDBC) is an Application Programming Interface which is one of important usable in different business applications. The reason behind the widely use of JDBC is that because most of the business application software use database. In order to retrieve and store the  data in database through GUI we need some kind of connectivity between front end database . Java Data Base Connectivity (JDBC) connects java application with database.JDBC DriversJDBC API Package is java.sql and we imports this package in our jdbc application program. In this package there  are many interfaces. To connect java application  with any ... Read more
clicks 26 View   Vote 0 Like   10:15am 31 Mar 2019 #JDBC
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Ip address classesIn this ip address classes based tutorial today we will learn about ip address related concepts such as ip address meaning, ip address classes, types of ip address ,classful addressing and loop back ip address and it's use.What is ip address meaning?What are different  ip address classes ?What is loop back ip address?Ip address meaningIp address is also known as logical address, ip address meaning is assigning an address to a computer or host connected over a network. Ip address is the address assigned to each host present in a network. In IP addressing scheme two device can not have same IP address.IP Address Spec... Read more
clicks 4 View   Vote 0 Like   4:53am 22 Mar 2019 #gate study material for cse
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IP Address ClassesWhat is an ip Address?What are different types of ip address classes ?What is loop back ip address?This tutorial covers the IP address introduction, types of ip address, ip address classes and loop back ip address and it's use.IP Address SpecificationIn ip addressing scheme two hosts cannot have the same IP Address.  An IP address is 32 bit binary number but generally for representation purpose IP address is represented as 4 values in decimal number system Each of the four represent the 8 bits in the range from 0 to 255 and separated by decimal point.For example 200.150.85.95 is a class C IP Address.Address Classes used for IP AddressingThere are five different ip... Read more
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Network layer protocols and functionsWhat is network layer of OSI Model ?This tutorial covers the basic introduction of network layer in osi model, network layer design issues, network layer protocols and functions, network layer services and functions.Network layer in osi or TCP/IP modelNetwork layer of TCP/IP model in computer network is responsible for taking the packets from the source node or host and deliver it to the destination node. Packet goes through several intermediate node and network router during its transmission from source to destination.  The correct delivery of entire message or data packet at the destination side is verified at Transport layer by TCP protocol.The&nb... Read more
clicks 4 View   Vote 0 Like   8:22am 18 Mar 2019 #gate study material for cse
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Network Layer TutorialThis tutorial covers the basic introduction of network layer in computer network, network layer design issues, network layer services and functions.Network Layer IntroductionNetwork layer of TCP/IP model in computer network is responsible for taking the packets from the source node or host and deliver it to the destination node. Packet goes through several intermediate node and network router during its transmission from source to destination.  The correct delivery of entire message or data packet at the destination side is verified at Transport layer by TCP protocol.The Network layer of TCP/IP protocol suite supports the Internetworking Protocol which provides the... Read more
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Physical Layer of OSI ModelLowest layer of OSI model is physical layer. Major concerns of this layer is to deal with the physical medium which is used for data communication between sender and receiver node or host or devices. This physical medium is also known as transmission media this may be copper wire, fiber in case of wired network and wireless network etc.Functions of physical layerDifferent functions of physical layer are as follow 1.Specification of Hardware:  Physical layer keeps the track of  the transmission media such as  physical cables, network interface cards, wireless radios, etc. 2. Encoding and Signaling: Encoding of bits in the medium is also decided b... Read more
clicks 20 View   Vote 0 Like   2:34pm 15 Mar 2019 #Computer Network
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Characteristics of dbms and dbms introductionWhat is Data ?Before introducing the introduction to database management system , advantages of dbms, characteristics of dbms  let us know something about data what is data ? The term data may be defined as a collection of facts which provide information  about something. Data may be in the form of text, table figure graph audio and video. In context of computer world data is processed by computer and it is recorded or store in some suitable form which can be understand by the user. Data can be stored on secondary device like had disk or in primary memory.Data can be collected stored, processed and it can be manipulated it means we ... Read more
clicks 4 View   Vote 0 Like   2:00pm 17 Jan 2019 #gate study material for cse
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What is AVL Tree ?AVL stands for ADELSON, VELSKI AND LANDIS. It is a tree representation commonly known as ‘AVL TREE’.Here we have explained an avl tree example in the figure. AVL tree is just like a binary search tree(BST) but it is a balanced tree in data structure. Here the the term balanced is used in context of height it means AVL Tree is a height balanced tree.in data structure. It is heught balanced binary search tree.If in binary search tree, at every node avl tree balance factor is 1 or 0 or -1, then it is AVL tree.Balancing factor of a node in VAL tree is calculated using this formulaBalancing factor = (height of left sub tree) – (height of right sub tree)An avl tree example ... Read more
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What is dtd in xml ?In xml dtd stands for Document Type Definition. XML dtd is used to express the XML language. XML dtd is generally usd for the following purpose.DTD in XML is used to check the validity of XML.Structure and vocabulary of XML can be checked using xml dtd.XML dtd Checks the grammatical rules of XML language.DTD contains declaration of following XML components ElementAttributesEntitiesElements are building block of XML document.Attributes are associated with elements describe its features.Entities are placeholders in XML which can be declared in the documentFeatures of xml dtdVarious features of xml dtd are as followDTD decides the elements which appears in DTDXml dtd de... Read more
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